What is Cardarine?
Cardarine, also known as GW-501516 or Endurobol, is a substance created in the 1990s by two pharmaceutical companies: GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals. Its main goal is to prevent diseases related to heart disease and metabolic syndrome. Thanks to its incredible ability to speed up metabolism and burn fat tissue, it quickly gained popularity with athletes.
Due to its selective action, GW-501516 is often mistakenly classified as SARM (Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators). In fact, it is a PPARδ receptor agonist.
Activation of the PPAR-delta pathway causes a sudden increase in endurance and accelerated metabolism while lowering blood lipid levels.
Although GW-501516 is primarily known to athletes as an excellent reduction supplement, it also has a number of other benefits:
Accelerates fat burning
For many people, the most crucial characteristic of Cardarine. However, the action of GW-501516 differs significantly from that of an average cutting supplement, which usually contains only thermogenic substances. By acting on the PPAR-delta pathway, it activates a large number of genes responsible for fat burning. It also changes the way our body responds to high glycemic index meals.
Increased strength is associated with activation of the PPARδ pathway. It alters the way our body metabolizes fat and glucose, thus ensuring greater endurance. This has been confirmed by GW-501516 user reviews and clinical trials. In one such study, mice were subjected to severe endurance training. After using cardarine, they were able to walk a much longer distance than in the control study and showed increased tolerance to chronic exercise.
In another study, this time on humans, participants experienced a significant increase in strength. However, at this stage, we cannot say whether this is due to the anabolic properties of the substance or only to a more efficient management of energy by the body. The fact that GW-501516 is on the WADA list (meaning professionals can’t use it) gives some idea of just how strong this substance is.
Protects the brain
An animal study indicates that GW-501516 may protect the brain in hypoxia. Also, substances that affect PPAR are known for their ability to accelerate nerve cell development. This suggests that cardarine, as a subgroup of PPAR (PPAR-delta), may also have a similar effect.
Additionally, in a study on rat brain cells, cardarine reduced inflammation of TNF-alpha cells.
Protects the heart and circulatory system
Endurobol can have a positive impact on the functioning of the circulatory system. Research in mice shows that low doses of GW1516 prevent arterial damage. Unfortunately, increasing the dose did not change the magnitude of the protective effect. Additionally, no human studies have been conducted to date to verify this ability.
However, this is not the only health-promoting effect. Evidence suggests that Cardarine can alter the functioning of our entire circulatory system. It reduces the damage caused by oxidation and increases the amount of nitric oxide present in the blood, which helps relax the vessels and prevents atherosclerosis.
We also know that it speeds up the formation of new blood vessels in the heart. This is great news for people with heart disease.
Helps fight obesity
In another study that we managed to uncover, cardarine was given to 6 obese people in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. It cured the symptoms of metabolic syndrome in all subjects without causing side effects.
Participants took a maximum of 10 mg per day for just two weeks. After such a short period, positive changes in fatty liver disease, insulin sensitivity and lipid levels were already visible. We can therefore conclude that GW-501516 is an excellent supplement to combat insulin resistance caused by obesity and chronic inflammation.
In another study, this time in obese mice, cardarine reduced the risk of heart disease by lowering LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels. It also reduced the overproduction of glucose by the liver. This means that Endurobol can be a good supplement for people with type 2 diabetes (if it has the same effect in humans).
By activating the PPAR-delta pathway, cardarine reduced liver inflammation in animal studies. It was even able to stop the development of inflammation at the DNA level!
Applied topically to the skin, it reduced inflammation in mice and accelerated wound healing. So far, scientists have proven that it reduces the production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as NFκB, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MCP-1.
Reduces the risk of kidney disease
In the study mentioned above, cardarine reduced the expansion of genes associated with kidney disease, thus reducing the likelihood of their occurrence.
Protects the liver
This is the last of the advantages that we know of. As you can easily guess, GW-501516 also affects liver function since it is the main organ responsible for fat metabolism. Endurobol lowers blood sugar levels, causing the liver to draw energy from fat instead of glucose. It also has a protective effect against the effects of a diet high in fructose (avoid fatty liver if you consume >50g of fructose per day). In a mouse study, endurobol also reduced the risk of liver damage by destroying degenerated cells.
Cardarine Side effects
There aren’t many studies on the side effects of cardarine, especially in humans. Users also very rarely complain about side effects. However, we have found studies that indicate that this substance may also have side effects.
First, as mentioned earlier, GW-501516 has the ability to destroy degenerated liver cells. Although this is generally a positive thing, it is definitely harmful for people with liver disease. In these people, whose liver has difficulty functioning properly without additional means, Endurobol, by destroying certain cells, aggravates these problems. This is why GSK has stopped marketing this drug.
The other potential side effect is also related to the benefit mentioned above. Due to the acceleration of the expansion of certain cells, the risk of their mutation also increases, thus increasing the risk of cancer.
Please note that the aforementioned side effects were observed in mouse studies. None of these side effects have been observed in human clinical trials – however, these studies were too short for such effects to be observed.